1. Bank of China Building:
Steel structure three-dimensional support system, the structure is supported by giant steel columns with 4 corners and 12 layers high, and there is no pillar inside the room. The steel column and the diagonal rod in three-dimensional support and each supporting plane are used to transmit the gravity load of each floor to the corner column,thus increasing the force arm of the gravity load of the floor for resisting the balance of the overturning moment, thereby improving the effectiveness as the balance weight. Inspired by the“high rise”of bamboo, the design of the Bank of China symbolizes the spirit of strength, vitality, strength and forge ahead. The base granite outer wall represents the Great Wall and symbolizes China. It also means that the Bank of China will continue to flourish in the future.
2. Jin Mao Tower:
Frame- tube structure system. The core is cast-in-place reinforced concrete, and the outer frame is a composite structure of steel structure and concrete, which becomes a model for the super high-rise building of combination of steel structure and concrete structure. The building adopts the latest structural technology used in the history of super high-rise buildings. The vertical deviation of the whole building is only 2 cm, and the shaking at the top of the building is not even half a meter. This is the best in the world's tallest buildings, and it can resist the 12-level wind and at the same time, it can also withstand the magnitude 7 earthquake. The facade of the building consists of a large glass wall that reflects silver or non-silver, varying shades and varying colors. The hall has a rounded arch door frame, which gives a tall and spacious feeling. The wall is made of Mediterranean marble, which has a good soundproofing effect. The ground marble is light but not bright, flat but not slippery. The eight bronze murals in the front hall embodies the traditional Chinese calligraphy art. It reflects the evolution of China's 5,000 years of civilization through Chinese characters, from oracle bones and Zhong Dingwen to the evolution of Zuan, Li, Kai, and Cao script. The corridor leading to the banquet hall is an art gallery that reflects an elegant taste and luxurious style.
3. Shanghai World Financial Center:
Reinforced concrete structure (SRC structure), steel structure (S structure). With office as main part, Shanghai World Financial Center is a comprehensive building that integrates business, hotels, sightseeing, conferences and other facilities. The girders of the mammoth structure are made of concrete filled steel tube, which increases the stiffness and ductility and damping of the steel members. The advantage of using concrete filling is that the steel pipe at the top of the steel structure is generally thin, and the concrete filling can increase the bending resistance of the steel pipe.
4. Bird's Nest (National Stadium):
A reinforced concrete frame shear structure and bending and torsion members steel structure. The construction cost is 3.3 billion yuan, the construction area is 258,000 m2, and the steel content of the external steel structure is 42,000 tons. The steel amount of the whole project includes steel and rebar in concrete reached 110,000 tons. The main body steel structure forms a giant space saddle-shaped steel truss weaving "bird's nest" structure. The total steel capacity of the steel structure is 42,000 tons. The concrete stands are divided into upper, middle and lower layers. The concrete structure of the stands is reinforced concrete frame-shear wall structure system with 1-story underground and 7-story above the ground. The steel structure and the upper part of the concrete stand are completely disengaged, not connected to each other, but enclosed to each other in the form, and the foundation sits on a connected base plate.
5. grand national theatre:
Frame-shear wall concrete shell steel structure with a building area of 219.44 million m2. The outer structure is an ellipsoid double-layer reticulated steel structure, which covered its inside opera house, concert hall and grand theatre. In the installation process of the giant steel shell of the National Grand Theater, the bolt ball net frame structure is used instead of the ordinary scaffolding as its temporary construction support system, which fully exerts the space stress performance of the grid structure, which is convenient for loading and unloading and also can be reused.
6.CCTV new site main building:
From a structural point of view, the two leaning towers, the cantilever structure, the 9-story podium base and the basement can all be regarded as a complete structural system after finished. The weight of the slab is supported by the outer steel cylinder and the inner columns and slabs. Although the structural members of the outer steel cylinder have an inclination in two planes, the inner column of the building and the inner column of the core cylinder remains vertical. Due to the inclination of the tower and the fact that the depth of the slab is limited to a reasonable extent, some of the inner columns need to be terminated and replaced in the tower. The weight supported by these inner columns will be transferred to the inner and outer steel cylinders. Most of the conversion structures adopt two-story truss structures located in appropriate locations such as equipment rooms. The number of conversion structures will be kept to a minimum.
7. Guangzhou Opera House:
Steel-steel concrete mixing structure. The outer guard structure of the large theater and multi-purpose hall adopts a space combination folding plate three-way oblique net shell, and the overall geometry of the structure is an irregular polyhedron. Each face of the outer guard steel of theater and multi-purpose hall is triangular or quadrilateral,and its sides are divided into several sections, which are connected to form a three-directional grid in the plane. With the side as the main beam and the inner grid are connected by the secondary beam, both the primary and secondary beams adopt steel box beams.
8. Wuhan Radio and Television Center Building:
Reinforced concrete frame - tubular shear wall structure with a building area of 74,462 m2. The Wuhan Radio and Television Center Building is located at the Youth Road of JianShe Avenue in Hankou, with a construction area of 74,462 m2. Its structural form is reinforced concrete frame-tubular shear wall structure. The main building is 30 stories. Two-story of the basement is parking lot and part of the area is equipment room, podium 5~6 floors, 24th floor of the tower is office space, the upper part of the tower is 8 layers of steel structure function room, the top is the helipad. The building has an elevation of 164.8m and is equipped with a steel-structured TV tower at the top of the 30th floor of the main building in front side. The elevation of the tower is 198m. Its steel structure involves many such as: podium roof steel structure, top roof steel structure, top floor steel structure launch tower, etc.
9. National Aquatics Center (Water Cube):
Steel-mixed shear wall + steel structure + membrane structure, construction area of 79,532 m2, total steel consumption of 6,900 tons, it is the largest span of membrane structure construction (maximum span 130 meters). The structure design of the venue was inspired by the Irish mathematician Lord Kelvin's "The Most Effective Segmentation of Three-Dimensional Space", and also adopts and improves the optimized polyhedron combination system proposed by the Irish professors Weaire and Phelan, thus creatively designed a new polyhedral space frame structure. This paper introduces the geometric structure, performance, the force of the polyhedral space unit, the composition of the overall structural system, and the performance analysis of the ETFE inflatable pillow, etc about this steel structure system.
10. New Museum of the Capital Museum:
Frame-shear wall, steel structure roof, construction cost 780 million yuan, construction area 61680 m2. The force of the large-span steel structure in the upper part of the new museum of the Capital Museum is complicated. The wind tunnel was used to simulate the atmospheric boundary layer airflow, and the wind pressure distribution and wind environment of the upper and lower surfaces of the roof and the building exterior wall under various wind direction angles were tested. The louvers are placed at the end of the roof to effectively reduce the wind load effect of the long cantilever structure. Aiming at the problems of complex tensioning process in the traditional inter-column prestressed support system, difficult to control the top displacement of the column, and additional axial force caused by the lower chord under the column truss, the support form of the herringbone type tie rod placed on both sides of the middle column is proposed. The prestressed tensioning process is greatly simplified, the offset of the top of the column is effectively avoided, and the additional axial force of the lower chord under the column truss is also reduced.