The steel structure combines the style and beauty of classical and modern architecture. Many large buildings in the world use steel structure technology. What are the famous steel structures in the world? Let us share the style of the world's top ten steel structures.
No.10: Eiffel tower
The Eiffel Tower stands in the Champ de Mars in Paris, France. It is a world famous steel structure building and one of the symbols of French culture. It is one of the landmarks of Paris city and the tallest building in Paris. It is 300 meters high, the antenna is 24 meters high and the total height is 324 meters. It was named after the famous architect and structural engineer Gustav Eiffel. The tower is unique in design and is a masterpiece of technology in the history of the world. It is an important attraction and prominent symbol of Paris, France. The tower is made of steel and hollow, which can effectively reduce the influence of wind. It is a frame structure with stability, and it is small and large, and it is very light and heavy. It is very stable.
No.9: New York Empire State Building
The Empire State Building is a famous skyscraper located at 350 Fifth Avenue, Manhattan, New York, USA, between West 33rd Street and West 34th Street. The name is derived from New York State's nickname, Empire State, so its English name means The New York State Building or the Empire State Building, but the translation of the Empire State Building has been stipulated by the world and is still in use today. The Empire State Building is one of the most famous landmarks and tourist attractions in New York City and the United States. It is the fourth tallest in the United States and the Americas, the 25th tallest skyscraper in the world, and the tallest skyscraper in the world (1931-1972). With a height of 381 meters and 103 floors, the antenna was added 62 meters high in 1951, raising its total height to 443 meters. Designed by Shreeve, Lamb, and Harmon, it is an Art Deco building. The building started in 1930, completed in 1931, the construction process is only 410 days, which is a rare record of construction speed in the world.
The Empire State Building uses a reinforced concrete tube-in-tube structure that increases the lateral stiffness of the building, so even at wind speeds of 130 kilometers per hour, the maximum displacement at the top of the building is only 25.65 cm.
No.8: San Francisco Golden Gate Bridge
The Golden Gate Bridge is one of the world famous bridges and a miracle of modern bridge engineering. The bridge was built on the Golden Gate Strait, which is more than 1,900 meters long, and lasted for four years and more than 100,000 tons of steel. It cost $35.5 million and was designed by bridge engineer Joseph Strauss. Because of its historical value, the United Kingdom and the United States jointly made a documentary of the same name in 2007. The Golden Gate Bridge is one of the world famous steel structure bridges. It is also a miracle of modern bridge engineering. It has the reputation of the classic orange steel bridge.
No.7: Tokyo TV Tower
The Tokyo TV Tower was completed in December 1958. It was opened to tourists in July 1968. The tower is 333 meters high and covers an area of 2,118 square meters. Tokyo will build the world's tallest TV tower on September 27, 1998. The tallest independent tower in Japan is 13 meters above the Eiffel Tower in Paris, France. The building materials used are half of the Eiffel Tower. One third of the construction time to the Eiffel Tower shocked the world at the time. It is a reinforced concrete structure, which has the advantages of firmness, durability, good fire resistance, steel saving and low cost compared with pure steel structure.
No.6: Chicago Sears Tower
The Sears Tower, also called to the Willis Group Building, is a skyscraper in Chicago, Illinois, USA. It was once the tallest building in North America and was recorded on November 12, 2013 by the World Trade Center Building No. 1. At the time of its completion, it was named Sears Tower. In 2009, the London-based insurance brokerage company, Willis Group, agreed to rent a large proportion of the building as an office building, and at the same time obtained the building as part of the contract. Naming rights. On July 16, 2009, at 10:00, the official name of the building was officially changed to the Weilai Group Building. The Sears Tower has 110 floors and was once the tallest office building in the world. About 1.65 people go to work every day. On the 103rd floor, there is a watchtower for tourists to overlook the city. It is 412 meters above the ground and can be seen in four states in the United States when the weather is fine.
The building uses steel structure frame to form a beam structure. The whole building is regarded as a cantilevered beam space structure. The farther away from the ground, the smaller the shear force, the vibration at the top of the building caused by wind pressure is also significantly reduced. This greatly enhances the building's rigidity and ability to resist lateral forces.
No.5: Kuala Lumpur Twin Towers
The Kuala Lumpur Twin Towers used to be the tallest skyscraper in the world, but it is still the tallest twin tower in the world and the fifth tallest building in the world. It is located in the northwest corner of downtown Kuala Lumpur. The Kuala Lumpur Twin Towers are 452 meters high and are 88 stories above ground. The interior of the building designed by American architect Cesar Pelli uses a lot of stainless steel and glass. The Petronas Twin Towers and the adjacent Kuala Lumpur Tower are both well-known landmarks and symbols of Kuala Lumpur.
The reinforced concrete frame (core tube) outrigger structure system adopted by the twin towers is a mixed structure mainly composed of reinforced concrete structures, with a steel capacity of 7,500 tons. The auxiliary circular frame structure next to each main structure is connected to the main body to increase the anti-side ability of the main steel structure.
No.4: London Millennium Dome
The millennium Dome has been described as a deformed steel structure building in the past, but at the same time it is a representative building in London. The famous financial magazine Forbes conducted a public opinion survey on architects. As a result, Britain spent 750 million pounds to celebrate the millennium and was chosen as the "world's ugliest thing". The Millennium Dome is an exhibition of the popular science center building on the Greenwich Peninsula on the Thames. It covers an area of 300 acres and costs 80 million pounds ($1.25 billion). It is the United Kingdom to celebrate the turn of the 20th to 21st centuries to created the monumental buildings.
No.3: US World Trade Center
The World Trade Center (1973-September 11, 2001) is located on the southwestern tip of Manhattan Island in New York, west of the Hudson River, and it is one of New York's landmarks. The World Trade Center consists of two towering towers, four 7-story office buildings and a 22-story hotel, built between 1962 and 1976. The owners are the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. The World Trade Center was once the tallest twin tower in the world, the iconic building of New York City and one of the tallest buildings in the world. On September 11, 2001, in the September 11th incident that shocked the world, the two main buildings of the World Trade Center collapsed in a terrorist attack, and 2,753 people followed. This is the worst terrorist attack in history.
The twin towers of the World Trade Center Center are designed with an innovative steel frame sleeve structure system that connects the peripheral support structure to the central core structure through horizontal floor trusses. This design gives the building exceptional stability. In addition to the weight of the building, the outer steel column is also subjected to wind forces acting on the tower. This means that the internal support structure only has to bear its own vertical load.
No.2: Sydney Opera House
Located in the northern part of Sydney, the Sydney Opera House is a landmark building in Sydney, designed by Danish architect Jon Wusson. Below the shell-shaped roof is a water complex that combines a theatre and a hall. The interior structure of the Opera House is modeled after the Mayan culture and the Aztec temple. The building began in March 1959 and was officially completed and delivered on October 20, 1973. It took 14 years. The Sydney Opera House is Australia's landmark and one of the most distinctive buildings of the 20th century. it was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2007.
The Sydney Opera House uses a folded reinforced concrete structural wall that supports the roof with a multi-layered structure that can be loaded without compromising the curvature of the original design.
No.1: Beijing Bird's Nest
The Bird's Nest is the main stadium for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. The giant stadium designed by the Pritzker Prize winners Herzog, De Meuron and Chinese architect Li Xinggang in 2001 is shaped like a "nest" that breeds life. It is more like a cradle, bearing humanity’s hope for the future. The designers did not do any extra treatment for the national stadium, but exposed the structure frankly, thus naturally forming the appearance of the building. In July 2007, the British "Times" had named the ten largest and most important construction projects in the world. At that time, the "Bird's Nest" ranked first. The latest issue of the American "Time" magazine published on December 24 of the same year, selected the world's top ten architectural miracles in 2007, the Bird's Nest is innocent.
The steel structure suppport each other to form a network-like structure, and the appearance of high and low fluctuations moderates the volume of the building and gives a dramatic and powerful shape. The main building is a space saddle oval, which is the largest single steel structure project in the world.